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NAREDBENO SUČELJE (Command Prompt line)

CHKDSK

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CHKDSK 

Naredba Chkdsk (eng. Check Disk = provjeri disk) Izrađuje izvještaj o stanju i zauzeću tvrdog diska ili diskete. Također prikazuje i ispravlja greške na disku.

. chkdsk [drive:][[path] filename] [/f] [/v] [/r] [/l[:size]] [/x]

Primjer : Kreiraj izvješće o stanju diska c: i pospremi ga na d:\izvjesce.txt
C:\>chkdsk c: >d:\izvjesce.txt

Parametar Značenje
bez parametra prikazuje status radnog diska (particije)
drive: Određuje disk (particiju) na koji se odnosi naredba

Creates and displays a status report for a disk based on the file system. Chkdsk also lists and corrects errors on the disk. Used without parameters, chkdsk displays the status of the disk in the current drive.

Syntax

chkdsk [volume:][[Path] FileName] [/f] [/v] [/r] [/x] [/i] [/c] [/l[:size]]

Parameters

volume:

Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name.

[Path] FileName

Specifies the location and name of a file or set of files that you want chkdsk to check for fragmentation. You can use wildcard characters (that is, * and ?) to specify multiple files.

/f

Fixes errors on the disk. The disk must be locked. If chkdsk cannot lock the drive, a message appears that asks you if you want to check the drive the next time you restart the computer.

/v

Displays the name of each file in every directory as the disk is checked.

/r

Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. The disk must be locked.

/x

Use with NTFS only. Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary. All open handles to the drive are invalidated. /x also includes the functionality of /f.

/i

Use with NTFS only. Performs a less vigorous check of index entries, reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.

/c

Use with NTFS only. Skips the checking of cycles within the folder structure, reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.

/l[:size]

Use with NTFS only. Changes the log file size to the size you type. If you omit the size parameter, /l displays the current size.

/?

Displays help at the command prompt.

/p

Performs an exahaustive check of the drive and correct any errors.

Remarks

  • Running chkdsk

To run chkdsk on a fixed disk, you must be a member of the Administrators group.

  • Checking a locked drive at restart

If you want chkdsk to correct disk errors, you cannot have open files on the drive. If files are open, the following error message appears:

Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)

If you choose to check the drive the next time you restart the computer, chkdsk checks the drive and corrects errors automatically when you restart the computer. If the drive partition is a boot partition, chkdsk automatically restarts the computer after it checks the drive.

  • Reporting disk errors

Chkdsk examines disk space and disk use for the file allocation table (FAT) and NTFS file systems. Chkdsk provides information specific to each file system in a status report. The status report shows errors found in the file system. If you run chkdsk without the /f command-line option on an active partition, it might report spurious errors because it cannot lock the drive. You should use chkdsk occasionally on each disk to check for errors.

  • Fixing disk errors

Chkdsk corrects disk errors only if you specify the /f command-line option. Chkdsk must be able to lock the drive to correct errors. Because repairs usually change a disk's file allocation table and sometimes cause a loss of data, chkdsk sends a confirmation message similar to the following:

10 lost allocation units found in 3 chains.

Convert lost chains to files?

If you press Y, Windows saves each lost chain in the root directory as a file with a name in the format Filennnn.chk. When chkdsk finishes, you can check these files to see if they contain any data you need. If you press N, Windows fixes the disk, but it does not save the contents of the lost allocation units.

If you do not use the /f command-line option, chkdsk sends a message if a file needs to be fixed, but it does not fix any errors.

If you use chkdsk /f on a very large disk (for example, 70 gigabytes) or a disk with a very large number of files (for example, millions of files), chkdsk might take a long time (for example, over several days) to complete. The computer is not available during this time because chkdsk does not relinquish control until it is finished.

  • Checking a FAT disk

Windows displays chkdsk status reports for a FAT disk in the following format:

Volume Serial Number is B1AF-AFBF

72214528 bytes total disk space

73728 bytes in 3 hidden files

30720 bytes in 12 directories

11493376 bytes in 386 user files

61440 bytes in bad sectors

60555264 bytes available on disk

2048 bytes in each allocation unit

35261 total allocation units on disk

29568 available allocation units on disk

  • Checking an NTFS disk

Windows displays chkdsk status reports for an NTFS disk in the following format:

The type of the file system is NTFS.

CHKDSK is verifying files...

File verification completed.

CHKDSK is verifying indexes...

Index verification completed.

CHKDSK is verifying security descriptors...

Security descriptor verification completed.

12372 kilobytes total disk space.

3 kilobytes in 1 user files.

2 kilobytes in 1 indexes.

4217 kilobytes in use by the system.

8150 kilobytes available on disk.

512 bytes in each allocation unit.

24745 total allocation units on disk.

16301 allocation units available on disk.

  • Using chkdsk with open files

If you specify the /f command-line option, chkdsk sends an error message if there are open files on the disk. If you do not specify the /f command-line option and open files exist, chkdsk might report lost allocation units on the disk. This could happen if open files have not yet been recorded in the file allocation table. If chkdsk reports the loss of a large number of allocation units, consider repairing the disk.

  • Finding physical disk errors

Use the /r command-line option to find physical disk errors in the file system. For information about recovering physically damaged files with recover, see Related Topics.

  • Reporting bad disk sectors

Bad sectors reported by chkdsk were marked as bad when your disk was first prepared for operation. They pose no danger.

  • Understanding exit codes

The following table lists the exit codes that chkdsk reports after it has finished.

Exit code

Description

0

No errors were found.

1

Errors were found and fixed.

2

Disk cleanup, such as garbage collection, was performed, or cleanup was not performed because /f was not specified.

3

Could not check the disk, errors could not be fixed, or errors were not fixed because /f was not specified.

  • The chkdsk command, with different parameters, is available from the Recovery Console.

Examples



If you want to check the disk in drive D and have Windows fix errors, type:

chkdsk d: /f

If it encounters errors, chkdsk pauses and displays messages. Chkdsk finishes by displaying a report that lists the status of the disk. You cannot open any files on the specified drive until chkdsk finishes.

To check all of files on a FAT disk in the current directory for noncontiguous blocks, type:

chkdsk *.*

Chkdsk displays a status report, and then lists the files matching the file specification that have noncontiguous blocks.

CHKDSK command


Kako vratiti RAW format HDD u NTFS format HDD

Ako ste kojim slučajem dobili virus koji vam je konvertirao neku od particija u računalu u RAW format, probajte ga vratiti nazad u NTFS format pomoću ove naredbe

C:\>chkdsk D: /f    =>    C:\>chkdsk D: /x

Ovu naredbu možete upisati u CMD promptu ili direktno u Run (Pokreni) prozor; Start => Run


STOP: 0x00000024 (na Windows XP) => Kako reparirati particiju na hard disku

Primjer gdje se i ako može iskorititi CHKDSK . Ova greška BSOD (plavi ekran smrti) može se eventualno pojaviti ako imate problema sa Bad sectorima na HDD-u.
Uzmimo za primjer da ste uključili računalo i prilikom startnog prozora Windows XP nakon njega pojavi vam se BSOD (plavi ekran smrti) sa dotičnom greškom STOP: 0x0000024 ili pak se pojavi i odmah nestane da čak niste u stanju niti pročitati grešku.

Kao prvi korak potrebno je ući u boot menu pomoću tipke F8 (kontinuirano pritiskajući) u samom startu podizanja Operacijskog sustava Windows XP pa potom odabrati opciju "Disable automatic restart on sistem failure"

Disable automatic restart on system failure

Nakon startanja Windows XP-a pri pojavljivanju BSOD screena moći ćete pročitati error code. Recimo da je u ovom slučaju to STOP: 0x00000024 (....

Za rješenje problema bit će vam potreban instalacijski CD na kojem se nalazi bootabilna instalacija Windows XP.

Korak 1.
Uđite u BIOS i postavite da vam First Boot Device bude sa CD-ROMa

Korak 2.
Umetnite instalacijski CD od Windows XP u CD-rom i pokrenite računalo.
Pustite da se Operacijski sustav počme dizati sa CD-a

Kada vam se pojave tri opcije vi odaberite drugu opciju

- To set up Windows XP now, press ENTER.
- To repair a Windows XP installation using Recovery Console, press R.
- To quit Setup without installing Windows XP, press F3

Dakle pritisnite slovo R na tipkovnici da bi ušli u Recovery Console.
Pojavljuje vam se novi screen sa ponuđenim izborom. Ako imate više OS na PC-u tada će ponuditi svaki od njih ali ako imate samo jedan (što je pretpostavka za ovaj primjer) tada u izboru imate samo 1: C:\Windows

U ovom slučaju upišite broj 1

STOP: 0x00000024

Nakon ulaska u Recovery Console upišite chkdsk C: /p/r (chkdsk razmak C: razmak /p/r)

Prekidači (switches) koji se nalaze u ovoj naredbi znače slijedeće:
/p => prekidač će provjeriti sve greške na HDD-u i pokušati ih popraviti
/r => prekidač će potražiti sve BAD SECTORS i informacije o njima

Resetirajte računalo i nadajte se da je sve u redu ;-)

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